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Por:   •  5/5/2020  •  Trabalho acadêmico  •  3.221 Palavras (13 Páginas)  •  10 Visualizações

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E.E.PROF.DR LAERTE RAMOS DE CARVALHO

Names: Amanda Lemos, Bianca Mendes, Eicka Eufrasio, Giulia Jacomo, Thiago Rodrigues e Sharon Riani

Visual impairment

São Paulo

2019

Summary

Introduction        2

What is Blindness and Vision Loss?        3

Types        3

Causes        3

Risk factors        4

WORK AND EMPLOYMENT FOR VISUAL DISABLED PEOPLE        4

WORK AND INCOME ACCORDING TO 2010 DEMOGRAPHIC CENSUS        6

LABOR MARKET FOR VISUAL DISABLED PEOPLE BY RAIS        7

Special Workday        8

Visually impaired people can read and produce USP library texts        8

Meet the fully blind-operated factory in the United States.        8

Conclusion        11

       Bibliography..............................................................................................12


Introduction

The present work is about visual impairment. More specifically about visual impairment in the job market. It aims to clarify such doubts about visual impairment in the job Market. The methodology used was the research in several sites, enriched with some interviews.


What is Blindness and Vision Loss?

Blindness is nothing more than a condition characterized by loss of sight, even with the best correction (any optical feature such as glasses or contact lens). There are several ways to assess the extent of visual loss or blindness.

Blindness can be reversible or irreversible. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that three quarters (75%) of blindness cases worldwide are treatable or preventable. Going to the ophthalmologist regularly is one of the best ways to prevent blindness diseases.

According to data from the Brazilian Society of Ophthalmology, it is estimated that there are 37 million blind people in the world. And 82% of people living with blindness are over 50, according to WHO.

Types

According to WHO, the term “low vision” is used to define people with limited vision in the best eye with the best correction. The term “blindness” is used when the person has very low vision in the best eye with the best correction.

Blindness can be transient when vision loss occurs only for na indefinite period of time, or definitive when the condition becomes permanent and irreversible.

Causes

The main causes of reversible blindness are:

  • Cataract
  • Corneal Opacity
  • Trachoma (formerly known as “wormhole”)
  • Retinal detachment (reversible if operated urgently)
  • Migraine.

The main causes of irreversible blindness are:

  • Advanced Glaucoma
  • AMD (Age Related Macular Degeneration)
  • Advanced diabetic retinopathy
  • Vitamin A deficiency (mainly in children)

Optic neuritis, an inflammation of the optic nerve that carries information from the retina to the brain.

Amblyopia (popularly known as the “lazy eye”).

Stroke, retinitis pigmentosa and tumors are other less common causes of blindness.

Risk factors

There are some risk factors for blindness or vision loss:

  • Age
  • People with high degrees of myopia
  • Premature birth
  • Trauma
  • Eye or neurological surgery
  • People who work with chemicals
  • People with diabetes

WORK AND EMPLOYMENT FOR VISUAL DISABLED PEOPLE

In Brazil, there are visually impaired people who are lawyers, economists, physiotherapists, teachers and sociologists. That is, there is a very diverse range of jobs that can be performed by a blind or low vision individual. And, if performed in na environment appropriate to their needs, the work of this group of workers can achieve high rates of productivity.

Nevertheless, visually impaired people have lower employability rates and higher unemployment rates than non-disabled people. And this low rate of inclusion in the labor market is one of the causes of poverty in this segment of society. Moreover, when visually impaired people have a job, their wages are generally lower than those of other non-disabled workers.

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